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10. Bibliografia essenziale sugli strumenti di VMD

Riportiamo a semplice scopo di consultazione alcune voci bibliografiche relative agli strumenti di VMD che sono stati piů utilizzati nella letteratura internazionale. La scelta degli specifici strumenti dipende dalle esigenze e preferenze degli operatori, tenendo conto delle indicazioni che sono contenute nelle Linee Guida. In particolare, nei limiti del possibile, dovrebbero essere scelti strumenti che sono stati giŕ validati nella popolazione Italiana. Inoltre, č buona norma all’interno della rete territoriale vengano concordati strumenti omogenei per facilitare la comunicazione tra servizi.

Stato nutrizionale 11;8;9

Stato funzionale e disabilitŕ 10-27

Performance fisica 10;11;14;28-75

Stato cognitivo 76-94

Depressione ed Ansia 95-119

Comorbilitŕ 120-125 

Trattamento farmacologico 126-131

Condizione socio-economica 132-138   

Situazione ambientale 139-145

Qualitŕ della vita 146-166

Stress del caregiver 167-176

Strumenti globali 177-200


10.1    Bibliografia generale

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2.    Vellas B, Guigoz Y, Garry PJ, Nourhashemi F, Bennahum D, Lauque S et al. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and its use in grading the nutritional state of elderly patients. Nutrition 1999;15:116-22.

3.    Guigoz Y, Vellas B, Garry PJ. Assessing the nutritional status of the elderly: The Mini Nutritional Assessment as part of the geriatric evaluation. Nutr.Rev. 1996;54 :S59-S65.

4.    Guigoz Y,.Vellas B. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for grading the nutritional state of elderly patients: presentation of the MNA, history and validation. Nestle.Nutr.Workshop Ser.Clin.Perform.Programme. 1999;1:3-11.

5.    Rubenstein LZ, Harker J, Guigoz Y, Vellas B. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and the MNA: an overview of CGA, nutritional assessment, and development of a shortened version of the MNA. Nestle.Nutr.Workshop Ser.Clin.Perform. Programme. 1999;1:101-15.

6.    Rubenstein LZ, Harker JO, Salva A, Guigoz Y, Vellas B. Screening for undernutrition in geriatric practice: developing the short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF). J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2001;56:M366-M372.

7.    Slimani N, Deharveng G, Charrondiere RU, van Kappel AL, Ocke MC, Welch A et al. Structure of the standardized computerized 24-h diet recall interview used as reference method in the 22 centers participating in the EPIC project. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Comput.Methods Programs Biomed. 1999;58:251-66.

8.    Blaum CS, O'Neill EF, Clements KM, Fries BE, Fiatarone MA. Validity of the minimum data set for assessing nutritional status in nursing home residents. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;66:787-94.

9.    Kelly PL,.Kroemer KH. Anthropometry of the elderly: status and recommendations. Hum.Factors. 1990;32:571-95.

10.    Applegate WB, Blass JP, Williams TF. Instruments for the functional assessment of older patients. N.Engl.J.Med. 1990;322:1207-14.

11.    Fisher AG. The assessment of IADL motor skills: an application of many- faceted Rasch analysis. Am J Occupational Theraphy 1993;47:319-29.

12.    Hoeymans N, Feskens EJM, van den Bos GAM, Kromhout D. Measuring functional status: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between performance and self-report (Zutphen Elderly Study 1990-93). J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:1103-10.

13.    Kuriansky J,.Gurland B. The performance test of activities of daily living. Int' Aging Human Dev 1976;7:343-53.

14.    Sherman SE,.Reuben D. Measures of functional status in community-dwelling elders. J Gen.Intern Med 1998;13:817-23.

15.    Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW. Studies of illness in the aged: The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychological function. JAMA 1963;185:914-21.

16.    Katz S, Down TD, Cash HR, Grotz RC. Progress in development of the Index of ADL. The Gerontologist 1970;Spring:20-30.

17.    Katz S,.Akpom CA. A measure of primary sociobiological function. Int J Health Services 1976;6:493-507.

18.    Yohannes AM, Roomi J, Winn S, Connolly MJ. The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire: development, reliability, validity, and responsiveness to pulmonary rehabilitation. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2000;48:1496-500.

19.    Lawton MP,.Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. The Gerontologist 1969;9:179-86.

20.    Spector WD, Katz S, Murphy JB, Fulton JP. The Hierarchical relationship between activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1987;40:481-9.

21.    Katz S,.Stroud MW, III. Functional assessment in geriatrics. A review of progress and directions. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1989;37:267-71.

22.    Shah S, Vanclay F, Cooper B. Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation. J.Clin.Epidemiol. 1989;42:703-9.

23.    Ferrucci L, Heikkinen E, Waters WE, Baroni A. Pendulum. Health and quality of life in older Europeans. Florence: Editrice Giuntina, 1995.

24.    Granger CV, Deutsch A, Linn RT. Rasch analysis of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Mastery Test. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1998;79:52-7.

25.    Heinemann AW, Linacre JM, Wright BD, Hamilton BB, Granger C. Prediction of rehabilitation outcomes with disability measures. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1994;75:133-43.

26.    Linacre JM, Heinemann AW, Wright BD, Granger CV, Hamilton BB. The structure and stability of the Functional Independence Measure. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1994;75:127-32.

27.    Long WB, Sacco WJ, Coombes SS, Copes WS, Bullock A, Melville JK. Determining normative standards for functional independence measure transitions in rehabilitation. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1994;75:144-8.

28.    Tinetti ME. Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in the elderly patients. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1986;34:119-26.

29.    Ory MG, Schechtman KB, Miller JP, Hadley EC, Fiatarone MA, Province MA et al. Frailty and injuries in later life: the FICSIT trials. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1993;41:283-96.

30.    Reuben DB,.Siu AL. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1990;38:1105-12.

31.    Alexander NB, Schultz AB, Warwick DN. Rising from a chair: effects of age and functional ability on performance biomechanics. J.Gerontol. 1991;46:M91-8.

32.    Bassey EJ, Fiatarone MA, O'Neil EF, Kelly M, Evans WJ. Leg extensor power and functional performance in very old men and women. Clinical Science 1992;82:321-7.

33.    Binder EF, Storandt M, Birge SJ. The relation between psychometric test performance and physical performance in older adults. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med Sci 1999;54:M428-M432.

34.    Buchner DM,.deLateur BJ. The importance of skeletal muscle strength to physical function in older adults. Ann.Behav.Med. 1991;13:91-8.

35.    Buchner DM, Beresford SAA, Larson EB, LaCroix AZ, Wagner EH. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults II: intervention studies. Ann.Rev. Public Health 1992;13:469-88.

36.    Buchner DM, Larson EB, Wagner EH, Koepsell TD, deLauter BJ. Evidence for a nonlinear relationship between leg strength and gait speed. Age and Ageing 1996.

37.    Chandler JM, Duncan PW, Studenski SA. Balance performance on the postural stress test: comparison of young adults, Healthy elderly, and fallers. Phys.Ther.1990;70:410-5.

38.    Cress ME, Buchner DM, Questad KA, Esselman PC, deLateur BJ, Schwartz RS. Continuous-Scale physical functional performance in healthy older adults: A validation study. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1996;77:1243-9.

39.    Falconer J, Hughes SL, Naughton BJ, Singer R, Chang RW, Sinacore JM. Self report and performance - based hand function tests as correlates of dependency in the elderly. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1991;39:695-9.

40.    Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Bandeen-Roche KJ, Lafferty ME, Pahor M, Fried LP. Physical performance measures. In Guralnik JM, Fried LP, Simonsick EM, Kasper JD, Lafferty ME, eds. The Women's Health and Aging Study: health and social characteristics of older women with disability, pp 35-49. Bethesda: NIH Publication, 1996.

41.    Gerety MB, Mulrow CD, Tuley MR, Hazuda HP, Lichtenstein MJ, Bohannon R et al. Development and validation of a physical performance instrument for the functionally impaired elderly: the Physical Disability Index (PDI). J Gerontol 1993;48:M33-8.

42.    Gerrity MS, Gaylord S, Williams ME. Short version of the timed manual performance test. Development, Reliability, and Validity. Medical Care 1993;31:617-28.

43.    Guralnik JM, Branch LG, Cummings SR, Curb JD. Physical performance measures in aging research. J Gerontol 1989;44:M141-M146.

44.    Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J.Gerontol. 1994;49:M85-M94.

45.    Guralnik JM,.Winograd CH. Physical performance measures in the assessment of older persons. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1994;6:303-5.

46.    Guralnik JM, Seeman TE, Tinetti ME, Nevitt MC, Berkman LF. Validation and use of performance measures of functioning in a non-disabled older population: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1994;6:410-9.

47.    Guralnik JM. Assessment of physical performance and disability in older persons. Muscle & Nerve 1997;S14-S16.

48.    Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Penninx BW, Kasper JD, Leveille SG, Bandeen-Roche K et al. New and worsening conditions and change in physical and cognitive performance during weekly evaluations over 6 months: the Women's Health and Aging Study. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 1999;54:M410-M422.

49.    Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Pieper CF, Leveille SG, Markides KS, Ostir GV et al. Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone compared with the short physical performance battery. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2000;55:M221-M231.

50.    Guyatt GH, Pugsley SO, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ, Berman LB, Jones NL et al. Effect of encouragement on walking test performance. Thorax 1984;39:818-22.

51.    Harada N, Chiu V, Damron-Rodriguez J, Fowler E, Siu A, Reuben DB. Screening for balance and mobility impairment in elderly individuals living in residential care facilities. Phys.Ther. 1995;75:462-9.

52.    Harada ND, Chiu V, Stewart AL. Mobility-related function in older adults: assessment with a 6-minute walk test. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil. 1999;80:837-41.

53.    Hausdorff JM, Levy BR, Wei JY. The power of ageism on physical function of older persons: reversibility of age-related gait changes. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1999;47:1346-9.

54.    Hirsch CH, Fried LP, Harris T, Fitzpatrick A, Enright P, Schulz R. Correlates of performance-based measures of muscle function in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 1997;52:M192-M200.

55.    Jeng SF, Schenkman M, Riley PO, Lin SJ. Reliability of a clinical Kinematic assessemnt of the sit-to-stand movement. Phys.Ther. 1988;8:511-20.

56.    Judge JO, Schetman K, Cress E. The relationship between physical performance measures and independence in instrumental activities of daily living. J.Am.Geristr.Soc. 1996;44:1332-41.

57.    Myers AM, Holliday PJ, Harvey KA, Hutchinson KS. Functional performance measures: are they superior to self- assessments?  J.Gerontol. 1993;48:M196-M206.

58.    Nakagaichi M,.Tanaka K. Development of a 12-min treadmill walk test at a self-selected pace for the evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adult men. Appl.Human Sci. 1998;17:281-8.

59.    Piergentini, S. A., Bandinelli, S., Ferrucci, L., Gangemi, S., and Baroni, A. Confronto tra autovalutazione e test di performance in pazienti anziani affetti da morbo di Parkinson.  473-481. 1995. Trieste.

60.    Pincus T, Brooks RH, Callahan LF. Reliability of grip strengh, walking time and button test performed according to a standard protocol. J.Rheumatol. 1991;18:997-1000.

61.    Pincus T,.Callahan LF. Rheumatology function tests: grip strengh, walking time, button test and questionnaires document and predict longterm morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. J.Rheumatol. 1992;19:1051-7.

62.    Bandinelli S, Benvenuti E, Del L, I, Baccini M, Benvenuti F, Di Iorio A et al. Measuring muscular strength of the lower limbs by hand-held dynamometer: a standard protocol. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1999;11:287-93.

63.    Reuben DB, Valle LA, Hays RD, Siu AL. Measuring physical function in community-dwelling older persons: a comparison of self-administered, interviewer-administered, and performance-based measures. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1995;43:17-23.

64.    Rozzini R, Frisoni GB, Bianchetti A, Zanetti O, Trabucchi M. Physical Performance Test and Activities of Daily Living scales in the assessment of health status in elderly people. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1993;41:1109-13.

65.    Seeman TE, Charpentier PA, Berkman LF, Tinetti ME, Guralnik JM, Albert M et al. Predicting changes in physical performance in a high-functioning elderly cohort: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J.Gerontol. 1994;49:M97-108.

66.    Seeman TE, Berkman LF, Charpentier PA, Blazer DG, Albert MS, Tinetti ME. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors of physical performance: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. J.Gerontol. 1995;50A:M177-M183.

67.    Smithson F, Morris ME, Iansek R. Performance on clinical Test of Balance in Parkinson's disease. Phys.Ther. 1998;78:577-87.

68.    Weiner DK, Long R, Hughes MA, Chandler J, Studenski S. When older adults face the chair-rise challenge. A study of chair height availability and heigth-modified chair-rise performance in the elderly. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1993;41:6-10.

69.    Whitney SL, Poole JL, Cass SP. A review of balance instruments for older adults. Am.J.Occup.Ther. 1998;52:666-71.

70.    Wiksten DL, Perrin D, Hartman M, Gieck, Weltman A. The relatioship between muscle and balance performance as a function of age. Isokinetics and exercise Science 1996;6:125-32.

71.    Williams ME, Hadler MN, Earp JL. Manual ability as a marker of dependency in geriatric women. J.Chron.Dis. 1982;35:115-22.

72.    Williams ME, Gaylord SA, McGaghie WC. Timed manual performance in a community elderly population. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1990;38:1120-6.

73.    Winograd CH, Lemsky CM, Nevitt MC, Nordstrom TM, Stewart AL, Miller CJ et al. Development of a physical performance and mobility examination. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1994;42:743-9.

74.    Wolf SL, Catlin PA, Gage K, Gurucharri K, Robertson R, Stephen K. Establishing the reliability and validity of measurements of walking time using the Emory Functional Ambulation Profile. Phys.Ther. 1999;79:1122-33.

75.    Young NL, Williams JI, Yoshida KK, Bombardier C, Wright JG. The context of measuring disability: Does it matter whether capability or performance is measured? J.Clin.Epidemiol. 1996;49:1097-101.

76.    Folstein MF, Folstein S, McHugh PR. Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J.Psychiatr.Res. 1975;12:189-98.

77.    Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993;269:2386-91.

78.    Weiss BD, Reed R, Kligman EW, Abyad A. Literacy and performance on the mini-mental status examination. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1995;43:807-10.

79.    Teng EL, Wimer C, Roberts E, Damasio AR, Eslinger PJ, Folstein MF et al. Alzheimer's dementia: performance on parallel forms of the dementia assessment battery. J.Clin.Exp.Neuropsychol. 1989;11:899-912.

80.    Ferrucci L, Cecchi F, Guralnik JM, Giampaoli S, Lo Noce C, Salani B et al. Does the Clock Drawing Test predict cognitive decline in older persons independent of the Mini-mental State examination? J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1996;44:1326-31.

81.    Mendez MF, Ala T, Underwood KL. Develpment of scoring criteria for the clock drawing test in Alzheimer disease. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1992;40:1095-9.

82.    Pfeiffer E. A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients.  J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1975;23:433-41.

83.    Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44:2308-14.

84.    Hartmaier SL, Sloane PD, Guess HA, Koch GG. The MDS Cognition Scale: a valid instrument for identifying and staging nursing home residents with dementia using the minimum data set. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1994;42:1173-9.

85.    Morris JN, Fries BE, Mehr DR, Hawes C, Phillips C, Mor V et al. MDS Cognitive Performance Scale. J.Gerontol. 1994;49:M174-M182.

86.    Barberger-Gateau P, Commenges D, Gagnon M, Letenneur L, Sauvel C, Dartigues JF. Instrumental activities of daily living as a screening tool for cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly community dwellers. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1992;40:1129-34.

87.    Doraiswamy PM, Krishen A, Stallone F, Martin WL, Potts NL, Metz A et al. Cognitive performance on the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale: effect of education. Neurology 1995;45:1980-4.

88.    Hamsher Kd,.Benton AL. Interactive effects of age and cerebral disease on cognitive performances. J.Neurol. 1978;217:195-200.

89.    Hartmaier SL, Sloane PD, Guess HA, Koch GG, Mitchell CM, Phillips CD. Validation of the Minimum Dataset cognitive performance scale. Agreement with the Mini Mental State Examination. J.Gerontol.Med.Sci. 1995;50A:M128-M133.

90.    Kane RL,.Kay GG. Computerized assessment in neuropsychology: a review of tests and test batteries. Neuropsychol.Rev. 1992;3:1-117.

91.    Sands LP,.Meredith W. Effects of sensory and motor functioning on adult intellectual performance. J.Gerontol.psychol.sci. 1989;44:P56-8.

92.    Demonet JF, Doyon B, Ousset PJ, Puel M, Mahagne MH, Cardebat D et al. Standardization of a modular and hierarchic cognitive evaluation scale applicable to dementia. A French version of the Hierarchic Dementia Scale. Rev.Neurol.(Paris) 1990;146:490-501.

93.    Chang VT, Hwang SS, Feuerman M, Kasimis BS, Thaler HT. The memorial symptom assessment scale short form (MSAS-SF). Cancer 2000;89:1162-71.

94.    Hoffman RG,.Nelson KS. Cross-validation of six short forms of the WAIS-R in a healthy geriatric sample. J.Clin.Psychol. 1988;44:952-7.

95.    Yesavage JA,.Brink TL. Development and validation of geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J.Psychiat.Res. 1983;17:37-49.

96.    Evans ME. Development and validation of a brief screening scale for depression in the elderly physically ill. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 1993;8:329-31.

97.    Hammond MF, O'Keeffe ST, Barer DH. Development and validation of a brief observer-rated screening scale for depression in elderly medical patients. Age Ageing 2000;29:511-5.

98.    Tucker MA, Ogle SJ, Davison JG, Eilenberg MD. Validation of a brief screening test for depression in the elderly. Age Ageing 1987;16:139-44.

99.    Abrams RC, Alexopoulos GS, Young RC. Geriatric depression and DSM-III-R personality disorder criteria. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1987;35:383-6.

100.    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.

101.    Brink TL, Yesavage JA, Lum O, Hevesuma PH, Adey M, Rose TL. Screening test for geriatric depression. Clinical Gerontology 1982;1:37-44.

102.    Brink TL. Why depression scales should not include all diagnostic criteria. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1987;35:368.

103.    Gallagher D, Breckenridge J, Steinmetz J, Thompson L. The beck depression inventory and research diagnostic criteria: congruence in an older population. J.Consul.Clin.Psychol. 1983;6:945-6.

104.    Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psych. 1960;23:56-62.

105.    Mahoney J, Drinka TJK, Abler R, Gunter-Hunt G, Matthews C, Gravenstein S et al. Screening for depression: single question versus GDS. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1994;42:1006-8.

106.    Maly RC, Hirsch SH, Reuben DB. The performance of simple instruments in detecting geriatric conditions and selecting community-dwelling older people for geriatric assessment. Age Ageing 1997;26:223-31.

107.    Sawyer Radloff L. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl.Psychol.Meas. 1977;1:385-401.

108.    Shamoian CA, Cohen GD, Alexopoulos GS, Sheikh JI. Anxiety in the Elderly. Treatment and Research. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1990.

109.    Steuer J, Bank L, Olsen EJ, Jarvik LF. Depression, physical health and somatic complaints in the elderly: A study of the Zung self-rating depression scale. J.Gerontol. 1980;35:683-8.

110.    Weiss IK, Nagel CL, Aronson MK. Applicability of depression scales to the old old person. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1986;34:215-8.

111.    Zung WWK. A self-rating depression scale. Arch.Gen.Psych. 1965;12:63-70.

112.    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behav.Sci. 1974;19:1-15.

113.    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). A measure of primary symptom dimensions. Mod.Probl.Pharmacopsychiatry 1974;7:79-110.

114.    Derogatis LR. The Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP): quantification of psychological stress. Adv.Psychosom.Med. 1987;17:30-54.

115.    Chang VT, Hwang SS, Feuerman M. Validation of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. Cancer 2000;88:2164-71.

116.    Yohannes AM, Baldwin RC, Connolly MJ. Depression and anxiety in elderly outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, and validation of the BASDEC screening questionnaire. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2000;15:1090-6.

117.    Alexopoulos GS, Abrams RC, Young RC, Shamoian CA. Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Biol.Psychiatry 1988;23:271-84.

118.    Kohout FJ, Berkman LF, Evans DA, Cornoni-Huntley J. Two shorter forms of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) depression symptoms index. J.Aging Health 1993;5:179-93.

119.    Garety MB, Williams JW, Mulrow CD, Cornell JE, Kadri AA, Rosenberg J et al. Performance of case-finding tools for depression in the nursing home: influence of clinical and functional characteristics and selection of optimal threshold scores. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1994;42:1103-9.

120.    Glasgow RE, Strycker LA, Toobert DJ, Eakin E. A social-ecologic approach to assessing support for disease self- management: the Chronic Illness Resources Survey. J.Behav.Med. 2000;23:559-83.

121.    Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit.Care Med. 1985;13:818-29.

122.    Miller MD, Paradis CF, Houck PR, Mazumdar S, Stack JA, Rifai AH et al. Rating chronic medical illness burden in geropsychiatric practice and research: application of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Psychiatry Res. 1992;41:237-48.

123.    Parmelee PA, Thuras PD, Katz IR, Lawton MP. Validation of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale in a geriatric residential population. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1995;43:130-7.

124.    Rosen AK, Ash AS, McNiff KJ, Moskowitz MA. The importance of severity of illness adjustment in predicting adverse outcomes in the Medicare population. J.Clin.Epidemiol. 1995;48:631-43.

125.    Harboun M,.Ankri J. Comorbidity indexes: review of the literature and application to studies of elderly population. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 2001;49:287-98.

126.    Gambassi G, Landi F, Peng L, Brostrup-Jensen C, Calore K, Hiris J et al. Validity of diagnostic and drug data in standardized nursing home resident assessments: potential for geriatric pharmacoepidemiology. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric drug use via Epidemiology. Med.Care 1998;36:167-79.

127.    Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Rollingher I, Reuben DB, Brooks J, Beck JC. Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing home residents. UCLA Division of Geriatric Medicine. Arch.Intern.Med. 1991;151:1825-32.

128.    Beers MH. Explicit criteria for determining potentially inappropriate medication use by the elderly. An update. Arch.Intern.Med. 1997;157:1531-6.

129.    Beers MH. The medication list--a portrait of a patient's health. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2000;55:M549.

130.    Beers MH,.Ouslander JG. Risk factors in geriatric drug prescribing. A practical guide to avoiding problems. Drugs 1989;37:105-12.

131.    Beers MH, Fink A, Beck JC. Screening recommendations for the elderly. Am.J.Public Health 1991;81:1131-40.

132.    Turner RJ,.Marino F. Social support and social structure: a descriptive epidemiology. J.Health Soc.Behav. 1994;35:193-212.

133.    Heikkinen E, Era P, Jokela H, Jylha M, Lyyra AL, Pohjolainen P. Socioeconomic and life-style factors as modulators of health and functional capacity with age. In Schroots JJF, ed. Aging, Health and competence, pp 65-86. Jyvaskyla: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1993.

134.    Berkman LF. The assessment of social networks and social support in the elderly. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1983;31:743-9.

135.    Berkman LF. Assessing social networks and social support in epidemiologic studies. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 1987;35:46-53.

136.    Berkman LF,.Macintyre S. The measurement of social class in health studies: old measures and new formulations. IARC Sci.Publ. 1997;51-64.

137.    Oxman TE,.Berkman LF. Assessment of social relationships in elderly patients. Int.J.Psychiatry Med. 1990;20:65-84.

138.    Seeman TE,.Berkman LF. Structural characteristics of social networks and their relationship with social support in the elderly: who provides support. Soc.Sci.Med. 1988;26:737-49.

139.    Lagergren M. ASIM: a system for monitoring and evaluating the long-term care of the elderly and disabled. Health Serv.Res. 1993;28:27-44.

140.    Gallagher B, Corbett E, Freeman L, Riddoch-Kennedy A, Miller S, Smith C et al. A fall prevention program for the home environment. Home.Care Provid. 2001;6:157-63.

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