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8.4    Bibliografia

1. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Wieland GD, English PA, Sayre JA, Kane RL. Effectiveness of a geriatric evaluation unit. A randomized clinical trial. N.Engl.J.Med. 1984;311:1664-70.

2. Rubenstein LZ, Siu AL, Wieland D. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: toward understanding its efficacy. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1989;1:87-98.

3. Rubenstein LZ, Stuck AE, Siu AL, Wieland D. Impacts of geriatric evaluation and management programs on defined outcomes: overview of the evidence. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1991;39:8S-16S.

4. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Harker JO, Miller DK, Wieland D. The Sepulveda GEU Study revisited: long-term outcomes, use of services, and costs. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1995;7:212-7.

5.   Stuck AE, Siu AL, Wieland GD, Adams J, Rubenstein LZ. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Lancet 1993;342:1032-6.

6. Landefeld CS, Palmer RM, Kresevic DM, Fortinsky RH, Kowal J. A randomized trial of care in a hospital medical unit especially designed to improve the functional outcomes of acutely ill older patients. N.Engl.J.Med. 1995;332:1338-44.

7.   Inouye SK, Bogardus ST, Jr., Baker DI, Leo-Summers L, Cooney LM, Jr. The Hospital Elder Life Program: a model of care to prevent cognitive and functional decline in older hospitalized patients. Hospital Elder Life Program. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2000;48:1697-706.

8.   Reuben DB, Borok GM, Wolde-Tsadik G, Ershoff DH, Fishman LK, Ambrosini VL et al. A randomized trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the care of hospitalized patients. N.Engl.J.Med. 1995;332:1345-50.

9.   Hogan DB,.Fox RA. A prospective controlled trial of a geriatric consultation team in an acute-care hospital. Age Ageing 1990;19:107-13.

10.   Naylor MD, Brooten D, Campbell R, Jacobsen BS, Mezey MD, Pauly MV et al. Comprehensive discharge planning and home follow-up of hospitalized elders: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 1999;281:613-20.

11.   Naylor M, Brooten D, Jones R, Lavizzo-Mourey R, Mezey M, Pauly M. Comprehensive discharge planning for the hospitalized elderly. A randomized clinical trial. Ann.Intern.Med 1994;120:999-1006.

12.   Nikolaus T, Specht-Leible N, Bach M, Oster P, Schlierf G. A randomized trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment and home intervention in the care of hospitalized patients. Age Ageing 1999;28:543-50.

13.   Rich MW, Beckham V, Wittenberg C, Leven CL, Freedland KE, Carney RM. A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent the readmission of elderly patients with congestive heart failure. N.Engl.J.Med. 1995;333:1190-5.

14.   Rich MW, Gray DB, Beckham V, Wittenberg C, Luther P. Effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on medication compliance in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Am.J.Med. 1996;101:270-6.  

28.   Daida H, Kottke TE, Backes RJ, Gersh BJ, Tangalos EG, Bailey KR. Are coronary-care unit changes in therapy associated with improved survival of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction? Mayo Clin.Proc. 1997;72:1014-21.

29.   Stone GW, Brodie BR, Griffin JJ, Morice MC, Costantini C, St et al. Prospective, multicenter study of the safety and feasibility of primary stenting in acute myocardial infarction: in-hospital and 30-day results of the PAMI stent pilot trial. Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction Stent Pilot Trial Investigators. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 1998;31:23-30.

30. Marchionni N, Fattirolli F, Valoti P, Baldasseroni L, Burgisser C, Ferrucci L et al. Improved exercise tolerance by cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction in the elderly: results of a preliminary, controlled study. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1994;6:175-80.

31.   Williams MA, Maresh CM, Esterbrooks DJ, Harbrecht JJ, Sketch MH. Early exercise training in patients older than age 65 years compared with that in younger patients after acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass grafting. Am.J.Cardiol. 1985;55:263-6.

32.   Ades PA, Waldmann ML, Gillespie C. A controlled trial of exercise training in older coronary patients. J.Gerontol. 1995;50A:M7-11.

33.   Wenger NK, Froelicher ES, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA et al. Cardiac rehabilitation as secondary prevention. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 1995.

34.   Stahle A, Mattsson E, Ryden L, Unden A, Nordlander R. Improved physical fitness and quality of life following training of elderly patients after acute coronary events. A 1 year follow-up randomized controlled study. Eur.Heart J. 1999;20:1475-84.

35. Carbonin P, Pahor M, Bernabei R, Sgadari A. Is age an independent risk factor of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized medical patients? J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1991;39:1093-9.

36.   Inouye SK, Bogardus ST, Jr., Charpentier PA, Leo-Summers L, Acampora D, Holford TR et al. A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. N.Engl.J.Med. 1999;340:669-76.

37.   Ray WA, Thapa PB, Gideon P. Benzodiazepines and the risk of falls in nursing home residents. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2000;48:682-5.

38.   Weiner DK, Hanlon JT, Studenski SA. Effects of central nervous system polypharmacy on falls liability in community-dwelling elderly. Gerontology 1998;44:217-21.

39.   Nygaard HA. Falls and psychotropic drug consumption in long-term care residents: is there an obvious association? Gerontology 1998;44:46-50.

40.   Mustard CA,.Mayer T. Case-control study of exposure to medication and the risk of injurious falls requiring hospitalization among nursing home residents. Am.J.Epidemiol. 1997;145:738-45.

41.   Trewin VF, Lawrence CJ, Veitch GB. An investigation of the association of benzodiazepines and other hypnotics with the incidence of falls in the elderly. J.Clin.Pharm.Ther. 1992;17:129-33.

42.   Sgadari A, Lapane KL, Mor V, Landi F, Bernabei R, Gambassi G. Oxidative and nonoxidative benzodiazepines and the risk of femur fracture. The Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Drug Use Via Epidemiology Study Group. J.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2000;20:234-9.

43. Berkman LF, Leo-Summers L, Horwitz RI. Emotional support and survival after myocardial infarction. A prospective, population-based study of the elderly. Ann.Intern.Med. 1992;117:1003-9.

44.   Antonelli Incalzi R, Landi F, Cipriani L, Bruno E, Pagano F, Gemma A et al. Nutritional assessment: a primary component of multidimensional geriatric assessment in the acute care setting. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1996;44:166-74.

45.   Goode HF, Burns E, Walker BE. Vitamin C depletion and pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. BMJ 1992;305:925-7.

46.   Lewis B. Zinc and vitamin C in the aetiology of pressure sores. J.Wound Care 1996;5:483-4.

47.   Lewis B. Protein levels and the aetiology of pressure sores. J.Wound Care 1996;5:479-82.

48.   Ovesen L. Vitamin therapy in the absence of obvious deficiency. What is the evidence? Drugs 1984;27:148-70.

49.   Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, Butcher J, Dymock IW. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure-sores. Lancet 1974;2:544-6.

50. Bernardini B, Meinecke C, Pagani M, Grillo A, Fabbrini S, Zaccarini C et al. Comorbidity and adverse clinical events in the rehabilitation of older adults after hip fracture. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1995;43:894-8.

51.   Antonelli Incalzi R, Gemma A, Capparella O, Bernabei R, Sanguinetti C, Carbonin PU. Continuous geriatric care in orthopedic wards: a valuable alternative to orthogeriatric units. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1993;5:207-16.

52.   Elliot JR, Wilkinson TJ, Hanger HC, Gilchrist NL, Sainsbury R, Shamy S et al. The added effectiveness of early geriatrician involvement on acute orthopaedic wards to orthogeriatric rehabilitation. N.Z.Med.J. 1996;109:72-3.

53.   Pound P, Sabin C, Ebrahim S. Observing the process of care: a stroke unit, elderly care unit and general medical ward compared. Age Ageing 1999;28:433-40.

54. Indredavik B, Bakke F, Slordahl SA, Rokseth R, Haheim LL. Stroke unit treatment. 10-year follow-up. Stroke 1999;30:1524-7.

55. Jorgensen HS, Kammersgaard LP, Houth J, Nakayama H, Raaschou HO, Larsen K et al. Who benefits from treatment and rehabilitation in a stroke Unit? A community-based study. Stroke 2000;31:434-9.

56.   Lincoln NB, Husbands S, Trescoli C, Drummond AE, Gladman JR, Berman P. Five year follow up of a randomised controlled trial of a stroke rehabilitation unit. BMJ 2000;320:549.

57.    Organized inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000.

58. Jorgensen HS, Nakayama H, Raaschou HO, Larsen K, Hubbe P, Olsen TS. The effect of a stroke unit: reductions in mortality, discharge rate to nursing home, length of hospital stay, and cost. A community-based study. Stroke 1995;26:1178-82.

59.   Pahor M, Carosella L, Pedone C, Manto A, Carbonin P. Trends of the characteristics and appropriateness of admissions to acute geriatric and medical wards in Italy from 1988 through 1993. Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell'Anziano--GIFA. Eur.J.Epidemiol. 1996;12:563-71.

60. Hollander MJ, Pallan P. The British Columbia Continuing Care system: service delivery and resource planning. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 1995;7:94-109.